This post contains the resources for students taking the UCL English Linguistics MA, all in one place.
Spoken categories, modal verbs and change over time
In a recently-published paper, Bowie, Wallis and Aarts (2013) demonstrate that observations regarding changes in the frequency of modal verbs over time are highly sensitive to differences in genre (‘register’ or ‘text category’). Our paper, although based on spoken British English, may shed some light on a recent dispute between Leech (2011) and Millar (2009) regarding how linguists should interpret corpus observations regarding changes in the modal verb system in written US English.
The following table summarises statistically significant percentage decreases and increases of individual modal verbs as a proportion of the number of tensed verb phrases (VPs that could conceivably take a modal verb), within different spoken genre subcategories of the Diachronic Corpus of Present-day Spoken English (DCPSE). The statistical test used examines differences in observed probabilities between samples, i.e. a Newcombe-Wilson test.
For our purposes the cited percentages do not matter, but the direction of travel (indicated by coloured cells) does.
This study concerns modal verbs within text categories. Against a general baseline (words, verb phrases or tensed verb phrases), the total number of modals decrease in use over the course of the period covered by the data (at least, noting the caveat, for spoken English data sampled comparably). Above, we employ tensed verb phrases as the most meaningful baseline out of the three. See That vexed problem of choice.
- Note that if we take all genres together (bottom row in the table), except for will, every significant change is a decline in use, but in the (large) category of informal face-to-face conversation (second row from top), can and might are both significantly increasing.
- Legal cross-examination is a predictable outlier, but broadcast interviews and discussions appear to generate very different results. Continue reading “Genre differences and experimental observations”
(with thanks to Jill Bowie)
One of the most controversial arguments in corpus linguistics concerns the relationship between a ‘variationist’ paradigm comparable with lab experiments, and a traditional corpus linguistics paradigm focusing on normalised word frequencies.
Rather than see these two approaches as diametrically opposed, we propose that it is more helpful to view them as representing different points on a methodological progression, and to recognise that we are often forced to compromise our ideal experimental practice according to the data and tools at our disposal.
Viewing these approaches as being represented along a progression allows us to step back from any single perspective and ask ourselves how different results can be reconciled and research may be improved upon. It allows us to consider the potential value in performing more computer-aided manual annotation — always an arduous task — and where such annotation effort would be usefully focused.
The idea is sketched in the figure below.